Luguburu Ghantabari is the pride of Santal community since the period of civilization called Sosnok’ Jug in Hor-dishom. It was the period when Kherwal people lived together at a particular region for more than four thousand years and enjoyed most peaceful, prosperous and happy life style. No outsiders could invade this rich territory due to the vast dence forest (Bir dishom). It is said that our forefathers had built our forts by some Paris (Clans) and ruled the country by the then Raj-Rapaj (kings/ parganas). They had developed and had formed good social systems. Yet there was a fear of losing social systems and can face the danger. It is said that Marangburu had insisted Guru Lugubaba for his guidance. As such a long marathon seminar of 12 years was convened at the Darbar Chatani, under sacred Saal tree (Sari Sarjom dare buta), at the foot hill of Luguforest. All Majhi babas, Pargana gomkey babas of all different villages/ parganas of all Paris (clans) had participated. It is said that gods and goddesses had also attended the social seminar. The main subject was for codification of social-systems performed at different occasions, ceremonies, birth, marriage and death ceremony, rituals of Bongaburu & festivals etc. It seemed to be highly positive in order to get the strengthen of Santal community – Majhi-Pargana system because it was more powerful.
Our forefathers who were intelligent and great to safeguard the valuable traditional heritage including our land, water, forest and minerals. Our great heroes could know its importance. They agitated and sacrificed themselves for the preservation and protection.
Some persons of our community feel about the importance of Luguburu. Persons like Fagu Soren, Shankar Soren, Sujan Besra, P. L. Baskey, Late Madan Mohan Hembrom, Haldar Soren, Surendra Tudu, Pitambar Majhi and members of Luguburu ghantabari Dharamgarh committee took enough interest and they visited Luguburu five-six times. Some local people of Luguburu area knew them and they also got enough inspiration who agreed to the mission of formation of a committee to organise social gathering there in future. In 1999 during Sohray Kunami, they arranged first Bongaburu with 200 people. It was a miracle to narrate the event took place in the Dhiri Garh Sinin (cave hall) at the top of Luguforest, very early morning, when they asked each other one person came in super conscious zone (man under trance). They asked him who was he and when was the Dhiri Garh Sinin (cave hall) was built? He answered that he was the Guru Haram of Lugubaba and it was built during Sosnok’ Jug (civilized era). Further they asked that whether gods (Bongas) were living there and whether they visited them in their villages? He said that Bongas were there and yet they used to visit them in their countryside. Again asked that they being the first and foremost in the country why they legged behind in comparison to others who came late. He very nicely narrated that they themselves were the reason for that as they didn’t believe each other and they were more selfish. At the last it was asked further that they were working hard in several organizations and platforms and became failure after 2/3 years why? He told that they might be working but the power lied with Bongas and they never bothered to ask for power. In short he said if they really wish to get the result they must ask for Blessings of power. Then they prayed to Bongas and told that if it was so then they anxiously asked that they would see the people gathering at Luguburu in increasing rate every year. It was really a miracle that the next year double the people about 400 persons attended. It was encouraging.
In third year, the gathering was about 5000 and gradually it increased every year from 15000, 25000, 75000 and crossed one lakh within seven years. Now the gathering is more than double of one lakh. People are now convinced that they alone can’t do anything fruitful.
Luguburu conference has become a most popular one and it may be treated as Disuwa Madwa. Thanks to Sadhu Bigan Sao who was guide for them to visit and know Lugubaba.
Santals Identity :
Santal has rich cultural heritage, old traditions, customs, rituals and religious performing. They also speak distinct language known as Santali. Out of four languages – Aryan, Dravidian, Indo-tibetan and Austro-asiatic – Santali happens to be the Austro-asiatic group of language. Earlier written form of literature in Santali was no more in existence and the Missionaries had tried their best to create the written literature of Santals by using Roman and Devnagri Script at the very beginning. They established a printing press at Benagaria in the erstwhile state of Bihar (now in Jharkhand) and started printing of books in Santali. In 1925, Pt. Raghunath Murmu invented a distinct script Olchiki and thereafter, a new chapter for the development and upliftment of Santali language and literature was started. As there were myriad difficulties in using Roman and Devnagri script in Santali language, specially in expression of words, subsequently, it was resolved with the invention of Olchiki script. Santali speaking people and other member of Austro-Asian language abudantly used Olchiki script for the writing and creating of literature. After a prolonged demand and agitation by the people of Santal community and various organisations Santali language was accorded constitution recognition and was included in 8th schedule of Indian constitution in 2003. Santali language achieved dignity and status, as that of other constitutional recognised languages and Sahitya Akademi is as well giving awards to Santali literates since 2005, Though Santali literature is extensively not developed, but it is in progressive form.
Besides, language and literature, Santal people are as well having dance and music of their own, where there is no influence of others, One can unhesitatingly realise the distinction in music, song and dance of Santals. Various dances are performed on various occasions. Langre dance is performed in village Akhra at evening and may continue till late night or throughout the night and it is merely intended for entertainment and merriment. Dong dance is performed in wedding ceremony. At the beginning of Spring, Baha festival is observed by Santals and all the Gods and Goddesses like Jaher Ayo, Moreko, Lita, Turuyko and other Gods and Goddesses are worshiped at sacred place known as Jaherthan which is located in each village of Santals and Baha dance is performed. Other dances like Rinja, Dasany, Karam, Danta and Pata are performed occasionally.
They have their own musical instruments like Tiriyaw, Banam, Tamak, Tumdak Dhak and Sakwa, Jhai Kartal, Ghanta & Pitha Ghanta. Different songs with different tunes are sung according to dances. During Sohray festival, Sohray songs are sung with Sohray tune, which are very heart warning and melodious. Sohray is usually a festival of birth of Sira Gai and cattle are worshiped during festival. Santal people dance and play with cattle with the tune of Sohray. This is mainly in commemoration of the service, rendered by cattle during the year for agricultural products and other connected works. All the Santal people are assembled in the heart land of village, mainly in open field with a bullock/ Buffalo or two from each family and are tied with rope systematically in the poles, fixed for the very purpose. Their horns are anointed with oil and heads are smeared with Sindur earlier. Santal women perform Chumara (Mark of respect) to those bullocks/buffalos by offering dub grass and home pounded white rice and by lighting Sulta Bati in winnowing fans and thereafter with the beating of Tumdak’ and Tamak, Sohray song is recited and bullocks or buffalos are teased with various manner, as a result of which, they jump over and the people dance before – with the tune of Sohray song and music. This is a very fantastic dance, enjoyed by both – The people and the domestic animals. Theme of Sohray song is mainly based upon romantic feelings and senses. Sexual narration is traceable in many a Sohray songs. The following songs rightly justify the aforesaid theme –
Gateng triyaw norong siligor buru re
Ninj dunj najom jong kan dah lu ghat re.
Its English translation is – Lover’s flute is played in Siligarh hill I hearken the same in watering place.
And again – Dah lunj senoh kana gatenj e suyur adinj
Dah inj lulu kana gatenj e seter adinj.
Its English translation is – While I go to fetch water, lover whistles And while I draw water, lover arrives.
Apart from above hunting festival is as well a major festival of Santals. In summer, Santals with arrow and bow in hands and pole-axe in shoulder enter forest and hill to hunt animals and birds and this very activity is regarded as a religious act according to their custom and tradition.
Santals live in natural surroundings they are very fond of Nature as well. And hence, they are the followers of Sarna religion and they believe in nature always. They worship their Gods and Goddess – Jaher Ayo, Moreko, Lita & Turuyko in Jaherthan, which is surrounded with Sal trees.
In a nutshell it can be rightly said that Santal is the only tribe in India who has enthusiastically so far preserved his rich cultural heritage, customs, traditions and religion. And this gives a distinct identity to Santals among others any where what-so ever.
A brief Traditional history of Santal Customary Law
The traditional history of Santal Customary Law goes back to 6000 B.C. i.e. more than 8000 years old ‘Epoch of the Indus Valley Civilisation’ N. K. Verma.
The Custom & usages are reflected in various Tales, Songs of the Santal community (story, poems, slokas – shrutis and songs) coming since immemorial time for instance.
“Chai -Champa garh lilibichhi, Badoli-Koinda likhon gorhon. Dayage Chaigarh Champa, Dayage Badoli Koinda, Dayage garh bon bagiyada.”These words and tales certainly indicate that the Santals had their own kingdom in the past.
The words – Murmu Thakur, Kisku Rapaj, Soren Sipahi and Mardi Kisar, Tudu Rusika justify that Santal community not only ruled their own states (Disom) by themselves, they had also a systematic life style in administration and common & collective enjoyment. It is heard in Binti (Shruti), “Pater Bare, Ere Atnak’, Lepej Tiril, Khode Matkom, Sari Sarjom dare butare Mare Hapram ko gelbar serma singi-nida ko achar led bichar led”, which depicted that the Santal community had a long and continuous 12 years meeting under the above trees on their custom & usages.
Even today, we find that there are Santal States (Dishom) namely, Dhar Dishom, Kuchung Dishom, Barha Dishom, Sikar Dishom, Maan Dishom, Silda Dishom, Tung Dishom, Bhonj Dishom, Sant Dishom, Kinjhir Dishom etc. All these Santal Dishoms are now in Jharkhand, Odisha, and West Bengal. There are many other Dishoms within these political/ administrative states which are being ruled by Majhi Pargana Mahal according to their own custom/ usages from the time unknown to us.
Baba Tilka Majhi (Murmu) (1750-1785), Sido-Kanhu-Chand-Bhairo Murmu and Fulo-Jhano (1825-1855) and Bhagawan Birsa Munda (1875-1900) become Martyr for the cause of country’s freedom. The Britishers had to enact two important Acts – Santal Pargana Act 1855/ Santal Parganas Tenancy (Supplementary Provisions) Act 1949 and Chhotanagpur Tenancy (CNT) Act 1908 related to their property rights (Immovable) and definitely these are outcome of their revolution. Besides, now the Panchayat Extension Act 1996 in scheduled areas, which protects & preserves their traditional custom & usages.
Foundation of Majhi Pargana Mahal : In a village (Aatu) – Majhi is the head of the community and circle (Pirh) is headed by Pir Pargana whereas Desh Pargana is heading the Dishom as per Santal tradition. They have collective responsibility & accountability to the community people of their respective areas. Hence, they take collective and unanimous decision in the cases under trial in their areas/ courts. All the important decisions are documented and kept for future reference. In all the levels, meeting/ sittings are need base. On very specific case/s, they call Assembly known as Lo Bir Mahal/ Baisi to take final decision unanimously. It is the highest court of the community. These bodies are the custodians of the Santal custom & usages.
The Impact of various law are also found in the custom & usages of the Santals.
Ol Chiki Script for Santali Language and Literature for Existence and Identity
The newly formed state of Jharkhand in eastern India is home of thirty one to thirty two tribal groups and different group has preserved its district with lots of cultural importance. Different group have 20 different languages belonging to three genetically unrelated stocks – Ando- Aryan (Indo-European), Munda (Austro – Asiatic) and Dravidian. Altogether more than five different writing systems are currently in use for these languages – Devanagri, Bengali, Odiya, Assamese, Ol chiki and Roman. Devanagari, in addition to its use for Hindi and other Indo-Aryan languages, is also generally used for writing the Munda and Dravidian languages of the region, unless these languages are spoken in area where Bengali or Odiya predominate, in which case either of these two scripts is preferred. Ol-Chiki was developed in order to avoid complications caused due to writing Santali in four different scripts, namely Bengali, Oriya, Devanagari, and the Roman script in the four Indian states where Santali was spoken.
The Ol Chiki script, also known as Ol Cemetʼ as the Santali alphabet, was created in 1925 by Pandit Raghunath Murmu, The “Ol script” is a new addition for the considerations of Santali as its language. The distribution of the Santali in various linguistic areas has got its due impact on the Santali language in the form of using script and mode of speaking with the addition of the script, the mode of communication among its members living in various ecological settings is taking a definite term. A universal and standard language may help a great deal in removing the culture barriers and bring the people of the country nearer to each other thereby serving the cause of integration and cooperation. No doubt, an universal and standard language may help in the culture unification of the people of the country & remove misunderstandings that grow out of inability to communicate effectively but the practical difficulties is to find out such a standard language. Pandit Murmu also worked a lot for safeguarding tribal interests in Jharkhand. In the eve of uprising of other modern Indians on the Basis of Social, cultural & linguistic similarity the Jharkhand state movement political leaders were proposed this language as “State Language” and confered him the title as “GURU” by the Jaipal Sing Munda in the Adibasi Mahasobha at Baripoda held in 1948. Ol Chiki is often closely related to an ethnic group’s desire to identify itself as “Tribal”. This script is probably the only tribal script in India which has been able to establish itself in teaching, printing and distribution. Ol-Chiki was indigenously created for a better and secular tribal unity, without religious overtones and the vested interest of a particular group. It is a product that touches hearts, souls, nature and cognition, and emotion of all who speak the language. The symbols are compatible with our pattern of life.
Murmu founded in 1950 an institution for the propagation of Santal culture and literature which has since developed into a large network, operating in several states under the name of ASECA (Adivasi Socio Educational and Cultural Association). Pandit Raghunath Murmu realized that the Santal should be educated in their own language and script at least upto the primary level. In Murmu‟s ideology, the script shows the youth a new way of life where they should get rid of the decadence of the present to renew with the values of the ancestors, who were content with austere values.
The languages of Jharkhand and the issue of their writing systems is of special interest to scholar working on the relation between spoken and written language as well as the sociolinguistic aspects of the writing system to be used. I noted, at present no less than five scripts are in use for Tribal languages of Jharkhand, as yet still have no standardized orthography. Even among those languages, such as Santali which do have a generally agreed upon standard orthography and sole representative of the Austro-Asiatic family in the list of 22 languages included in the eight schedule of the Constitution of India in December 2003. It has opened new prospects for the teaching of Santali and Ol Chiki. Santali alphabet, Ol Chiki is used for developing the Santali language of India and neighboring countries. Ol Chiki has 30 letters, the forms of which are intended to evoke natural shapes. Linguist Norman Zide explains, “The shapes of the letters are not arbitrary, but reflect the names for the letters, which are words, usually the names of objects or actions representing conventionalized form in the pictorial shape of the characters. Which is increasingly being promoted as a common script for all Santal region, national and international level have gained notable degree of acceptance. Ol Chiki is now gaining popularity day and night. Its DTP solution and computer application has been developed by the Chaichampa Sahitya Academy, Bhubneshwar in 1996, Santali-Japanese joint Research Project, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies developed Ol Chiki Fonts and Auto-Machine Transcription of different Indian language scripts i., e., Devanagri, Bengali, Oriya, Roman, Kannada, Telgu, Tamil, Urdu, Malayalam and Roman etc into Ol Chiki script and reverse of it in 1998. Indigenous Language Institute (ILI), Santa Fe, New Mexico developed Ol Chiki Fonts for MacBook to publish Native Language Technology and Santali Digital Storytelling in 2010. The WeSanthals Groups “firstname.lastname@example.org” developed Ol Chiki fonts in web and use to send Email with Ol Chiki script and their tremendous work for encoding the Ol Chiki script in the UCS by our Great Scientists Mr. R.C. Hansdah, Mr. N.C. Murmu and Mr. Michael Everson, which has added to the Unicode Standard in April 04, 2008 with the release of version 5.1.0.The Unicode block for Ol Chiki is U+1C50–U+1C7F: For details, see the page for Unicode 5.1.0 at http://www.unicode.org/versions/Unicode5.1.0/. Unicode 5.1.0 adds 1,624 newly encoded characters, with the addition of the Ol Chiki, Cham, Lepcha, Rejang, Saurashtra, Sundanese, and Vai scripts. Santali Ol Chiki Software tools & Fonts released in public domain on September 08, 2009 at Delhi by Hon’ble Union Minister for Communications and Information Technology (Govt. of India) for free public distribution at a function jointly organized by the Technology Development for Indian Languages (TDIL ) programme of Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY ) and Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), an autonomous Society under DeitY,. The tools include Santali Ol Chiki True Type Fonts (TTF) with Santali Ol Chiki Font Driver, Santali OL Chiki UNICODE compliant Open Type Fonts (OTF), Santali Ol Chiki Keyboard Engine for TTF, Santali Ol Chiki UNICODE compliant Keyboard Driver, Santali Ol Chiki Firefox browser, Santali Ol Chiki Multiprotocol Messenger, Santali Ol Chiki E-mail Client, Dictionary, Spellchecker, Generic fonts code and storage code converter, and so on. In addition, most recent another 9 updated and new Santali Ol Chiki Software Tools- LibreOffice, Joomla, Firefox, Thundarbird, Pidgin, Tuxpaint, GNUCash, Inkscap and Lightning program work is in progress and going to be released within few months by Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (Govt. of India.)
The Santali language and literature has already been recognised by the Central Govt. and State Govt. of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and Orissa in the ways mentioned below:
i). Accepted Santali Language/Literature as optional paper in Matriculation level.
ii). The Govt. of Bihar is first to publish a journal named “Hor Sambad” since 1947 which is now continue by Govt. of Jharkhand and Govt. of West Bengal Publishing Santali magazine “Puchhim Bangla” regularly and recognise Ol chiki script for Santali in 1979.
iii).The state Govt. of Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal and Orissa have already initiated action plans for imparting education in mother tongue for the Santal students in primary schools.
iv). The University Grants Commission, Delhi has started imparting education and conferring Post-Graduate Degree in Santali language and literature.
v). The University Grants Commission included Santali as new subject, code No. 95 on October 18, 2013- UGC NET December 2013 Notification is announced by UGC, NewDelhi which will be held on 29th December, 2013 by the rules and regulations for recruitment of Assistant Professor of the concerned Subject and for determining the eligibility of Indian nationals for Junior Research Fellowship (JRF) both in Indian Universities and Colleges.
vi). The Jharkhand Public Service Commission and Union Public Service Commission offers Santali Language/Literature as optional paper for its competative Examination with Ol Chiki Script.
vii). The Govt. of Jharkhand has been conducting Santali Examination for its officers posted in Santali speaking areas for administrative purposes/reason
viii). The renowned Vishwa Bharti University i.e. Santiniketan has been imparting education in Santali language by Ol Chiki Script.
ix). The Universities of Jharkhand, Bihar, West Bengal and Odisha, namely Ranchi University, Ranchi, Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribagh, Kolhan University, Sidu Kanhu University Dumka, and Baba Tilka Majhi University, Bhagalpur, Sido Kanhu Birsa University Purulia, Vidhyasagar University Midnapur, Burdwan University, West Bengal and North Odisha University, Baripada, Mayurbhanj, Odisha are conducting examinations of Santali language/literature in the Post-Graduate level.
x). Eastern Regional Language Centre, CIIL, Department of Secondary and Higher Education (Ministry of HRD), Bhubneswar Established Department of Santali to provide Santali Intensive Course (Diploma) in Ol Chiki Script.
Xi) National Sahitya Academy awarded Santali writers who published book in Ol Chiki Script.
However, it is minority language in the Indian States, may enjoy the status of official language whether constituting the majority of the inhabitance or not. For examples:-
- Urdu is the official language in Jammu and Kashmir and in Karnataka;
- A minority language may be the language of majority in a particular State. Telgu is official language in Tamil Nadu vis-a-vis Telgu in Andhra.
- Santali language may be the official language in more than one State. For example, Santali in Orissa, Santali in Jharkhand, Santali in West Bengal , Santali in Assam , Tripura and in Bihar.
There are numerous factors which play a role in deciding which writing system is to be implemented, ranging from issues such as “identity” to issues of practicality. It also mean that children who learn Ol Chiki for their native language will be required to learn Devanagri as well when they begin to learn Hindi also the Roman script when they begin to learn English. In Bengali or Odiya speaking areas, the children will also have to learn the respective script before learning both Devanagari and Roman.
In the educational Institute as a medium of instruction in the first two school years, thereby providing children who speak at least the major tribal and regional languages of the state with a primary education in their native languages. This necessarily requires that textbooks in these languages either exists or will be created in the near future, which again presupposes that a standardized written form exists for each of the languages. While a standardized form has been achieved to a large extent for many of the languages in question. Some languages such as the Mundari, Bhumij, Kharia, Birhori and Asuri still lack any generally accepted standard orthography. The debate at issue is not only one of how to represent certain sounds of the language for which there is no exact correspondence in Devanagari, Bengali, Odiya and Roman such as glottal stop. There is also the issue of word boundaries, i.e., what unit are to be represented in the script as “words”. An issue over which there is at present considerable disagreement in Munda group of languages and other languages of the region.
Especially interesting in this regard from a purely linguistic viewpoint is the issue of word boundaries. There is considerable debate among linguists as to the status of lexical and grammatical morphemes as “words” in Munda languages. My own experience conducting field work in the area has shown that native speakers tend to have very clear notions of when to write these units as separate words and when to join them together as a single word, although there is also individual variation. What is especially noteworthy here is that these intuitions are often at variance with linguists’ intuitions’ based on factors such as intonation, etc. Also, there are any number of other possible reasons for the difference between linguists’ expectations and actual use, such as a particular writer’s familiarity with another standard orthography (Hindi, Bengali, Odiya, English, and Assamese etc.) and the orthographic patterns found there.
After the formation of new State Jharkhand in 2000 and Santali became Schedule Language in 2003 and Unicode of Ol Chiki Script in 2008, it has attracted students, researchers, Scholars and Visiting Scholars from the country like USA, UK, Canada, German, Denmark, Netherlands and Japan to study Santali language, Literature and culture. Santali ranges among the best documented tribal languages of India. About 70% of the population still maintains each and every traditional customs and traditions and follow their ‘age old’ cultural practices. Since 1870, the missionaries documented a vast corpus of words which resulted in a large encyclopaedic dictionary and a number of volumes of folk tales that helped an early standardization of language and inspired linguistic research. By the end of nineteenth century, religious movements, migrations and education were important factors of change. To-day, Santal literature is a living phenomenon expressing itself in a range of literary expressions, drama, poetry, novels, history, folk-tales, riddles, as well as films and news-papers. Santal writers emerge as charismatic figures able to frame traditional culture as a source of inspiration, contextualizing the different problems that Santals face when they feel engaged in a globalized world. Educational issues as teaching and promoting a Santal literature have become important platforms to voice the political concerns of the community. Children still participate in traditional society but they involve themselves to produce a diversified peer culture which is both pervaded by westernization and the reinvention of Tradition.
In 2003, when Santali was one of the 18 minority languages newly recognized the question became more acute. Would it be possible to implement a proper training of Santali children using mother tongue and Ol Chiki? Some of Santal parents fear that their children would be even more disadvantaged when they will have to cope with three languages: the official State language, English, and Santali each has its own script, if it is not recognized in the job market. It seems that Ol Chiki was very important in the 1970s and the 1980s as a tool of identity and resistance which sustained some of the symbolic and artistic expressions of the Jharkhand Regional Political Party. But when the Jharkhand State was recognized in 2000, the tribal associations as well as the Government faced another problem: it became difficult to implement on a large scale what had been functioning as a tool of resistance on the basis of solidarity. No systematic study has been done on the problems faced by the implementation of Ol Chiki in Jharkhand since 2000, but it seems that the development of a tribal elite became an obstacle to the propagation of the script in Jharkhand, where the literacy rate was still weak for Santals and adivasis in 2001.
In India, the language issue is highly political. The tribal elites were divided and several political youth peer cultures emerged. The recognition of Santali as a major minority language gave a new impetus to the idea of teaching in the mother tongue and learning Santali in Ol’chiki. The last proposal was never adopted in Bengal, where the Santal elite were already taught to write in Bengali script, or even in Jharkhand, where Santali was taught using Hindi script. These contradictions have helped the Santals to negotiate their involvement in culture revivalism, politics and modernity at large. In these negotiations, children and youth have played a crucial role as they have been active in producing new cultures such as a new literacy through learning and teaching Ol Chiki. The introduction of the script has allowed children and youth to develop new cultural routines but also to recast “modern knowledge” using a script perceived as traditional. This referencing has been crucial because it has led to the establishment of shared frames of interpretation: how to use Ol chiki to produce a new Santal literature available to answer to all the needs of Santal speakers?
Though, the emotional identification of Santals with their own language is very strong. Language issues are important, but one should not forget economic problems which are often the cause of children dropout from the school. Elite formation has already divided the Santal community, though it has also allowed individuals for making novel contributions to the culture while pursuing a range of various goals, which were not necessarily present in traditional cultures.
Yet, many young Santals struggle to reconcile their tribal identity with their current urban lower middle class status, as their claims Tribal elites have contributed to allow powerful constructions of Adivasi identity which are now circulating to represent the modern youth are challenged by young activists who prone the value of resistance. Nevertheless, imagining a new Santal identity is of political significance. Writers, old and young, participate to undermine the negative stereotypes attached to Santals. Yet, we note that some Santal authors are taken up by children memory, animal tales and village life. Will this creative process allow Santal children to reframe their childhood blurring the tensions between the conflicting identities of tribe and class ?
Politicians, tribal parties and students organizations have contributed to voice the debate on tribal rights and education. Languages has long been recognised as an important social phenomenon. It has also been recognised that languages could be planned and its direction changed according to the changing social situations of a given time and place. . The use of mother tongue also leads to emotional fulfilment. In a stable and organised society, with its own socio-economic culture the mother tongue has, of course, the greatest formative value. It needs a pragmatic approach with vision and farsight.
‘लुगू बुरू घांटा बाड़ी धोरोम गाढ़‘ संस्था के उद्देश्य
1. सामाजिक उद्देश्य
क. आदिवासी संस्कृति एवं धार्मिक परम्पराओं के प्रचार प्रसार हेतु सांस्कृतिक आयोजन जैसे मेला, घर्म सभा इत्यादि का आयोजन करना। संथाली भाषा ओलचिकी के विकास एवं इससे आधारित शिक्षा को बढ़ावा देना।
ख. पौराणकि धर्म स्थलों, जनजातिय कानुन, मांझी प्ररगाना, मुण्डा मानकी, पाहन परगणेत की अवधारना की रक्षा, संरक्षण एवं इसका विकास करना।
ग. सामाजिक कुरितियों जैसे – दहेज प्रथा, नशाखेरी, बाल विवाह, डायन प्रथा आदि को समाप्त करने की दिशा मे कार्य करना, महिला सशक्तीकरण एवं करने हेतु विभिन्न प्रकार के प्रतियोगी परीक्षाओं में शामिल कराने के लिए शिक्षण की व्यवस्था करना।
क. स्त्री तथा पुरूषों के लिए स्वंय सहायता समुहों का गठन करना। बेरोजगार युवक-युवतियों स्त्री-पुरूषों को स्वरोजगार हेतु प्रशिक्षण की व्यवस्था करना तथा लघु उद्योग, घरेलु उद्योग की स्थापना करना एवं उसे बढ़ावा देना।
क. जल जंगल एवं जमीन की रक्षा एवं प्रदुषण नियंत्रण हेतु कार्य करना। इस हेतु वृक्ष रोपन को बढ़ावा देना, औषधीय पौधे सहित विभिन्न प्रकार के पौधे लगाना।
ख. प्रदुषण नियंत्रण हेतु शौचालय एवं स्नानागार का निर्माण करना।
‘लुगू बुरू घांटा बाड़ी धोरोम गाढ़ की नियमावली
क. संस्था से अभिप्राय : लुगू बुरू घांटा बाड़ी धोरोम गाढ़
ख. समिति से अभिप्राय : संस्था की कार्यकारिणी समिती।
ग. वित्तीय वर्ष से अभिप्राय : 01 अप्रैल से 31 मार्च।
घ. आम सभा से अभिप्राय : संस्था के सभी सदस्यों से बनी सभा।
ड़. पदाधिकारी से अभिप्राय : अध्यक्ष, सचिव एवं कोषाध्यक्ष।
च. अधिनियम से अभिप्राय : संस्था निबंधन अधिनियम 21,1860.
2. कार्य कारिणी समिति का गठन:-
क. संस्था की कार्यकारिणी समिति में पदाधिकारियों (अध्यक्ष, सचिव एवं कोषाध्यक्ष) सहित कुल 11 सदस्य होंगे।
ख. कार्यकारिणी समिति का कार्यकाल 5 (पाँच) वर्षों की होगी।
ग. काय्रकारिणी समिति का पदाधिकारियों एवं सदस्यों का चुनाव आम सभा द्वारा होगा। निवृत सदस्य पुनाः चुने जा सकते हैं।
3. कार्यकारिणी समिति का कार्य एवं अधिकार:-
क. संस्था के कार्यो एवं योजनाओं पर निगरानी रखना एवं संबंधित अधिकारियों एवं कर्मचारियों को अपेक्षित निर्देश देना।
ख. संस्था के चल या अचल सम्पत्ति के लिए उत्तरदायी होना।
ग. संस्था के सभी कार्यो का सम्पादन विधिवत करना और प्रस्ताव पारित करना एवं आवश्यकतानुसार उपसमिति का गठन करना।
घ. संस्थ के विरूध आचरन करने वाले या अनैतिक कार्य करने वाले सदस्यों के विरूद्ध आविश्वास प्रस्ताव पारित करना।
ड़. आमसभा की बैठक की तिथि, स्थान एवं कार्यवाली निर्धारित करना।
च. संस्था की बैठक की योजना एवं बजट तैयार एवं पारित कर आमसभा के समक्ष रखना।
छ. संस्था के स्मृति पत्र एवं नियमावली में संशोधन एवं संस्था के विघटन के संबंध में अपनी अनुशंसा आमसभा के पास भेजना।
ज. उद्देश्यो की पुर्ति हेतु अन्य वैधानिक कार्य करना।
झ. आमसभा द्वारा पारित प्रस्तावों केा कार्यरूप देना।
न. यदि कार्यकाल पूरा करने के पुर्व किसी कारण वश समिति में कोई पद रिक्त होगा तो कार्य कारिणी समिति उक्त पद पर किसी व्यक्ति को मनोनित कर सकती है। लेकिन आम सभा की वाषिक बैठक मे उसे विधिवत पारित करना होगा। मनोनीत सदस्य उसी पद के अनुरूप कार्य करेगें जिस पद के लिए उनका मनोनयन किया गया है।
4. पदाधिरियों के कार्य एवं अधिकार:-
1. संस्था के प्रत्येक बैठक की अध्यक्षता करना।
2. संस्था के कार्यवाही पंजी में हस्ताक्षर करना।
3. किसी बैठक में समान मत की स्थिति मे निर्णायक मत देना।
4. संस्था की गतिविधियों पर निगरानी रखना।
5. सचिव को कर्मचारियों की नियुक्ति एवं बरखास्तगी में सहयोग प्रदान करना।
6. किसी भी तरह की बैठक बुलाने हेतु समय-समय पर सचिव को परामर्श देना
7. आवश्यकतानुसार किसी भी अधिकारी या दूसरे संगठन की बैठक में संस्था का प्रतिनिधित्व करना।
8. समय-समय पर कार्यकारिणी समिति द्वारा सौपें गये कार्यों एवं दायित्वों को पूरा करना।
1. अध्यक्ष की अनुपस्थित मे बैठक की अध्यक्षता करना।
2. संस्था के गतिविधियों पर निगरानी रखना।
3. सचिव केा कर्मचारियों की नियुक्ति एवं बरखास्तगी में सहयोग प्रदान करना।
1. बैठक का आयोजन करना।
2. अध्यक्ष की राय मे अन्य कार्य करना।
3. संस्था की ओर से पत्राचार करना।
4. प्रत्येक पंजी एवं कागजात केा सुरक्षीत रखना।
5. संस्था की आय-व्यय का अंकेक्षण कराना।
6. अध्यक्ष से हस्ताक्षर कराकर अपना हस्ताक्षर करना।
7. बैठक के कार्यवाही को कार्यवाही पंजी मे अंकित करना।
8. आवश्यकता पड़ने पर समिति के बिना पुर्व अनुमती के 1000/- (एक हजार) रूपये तक खर्च कर सकते हैं, लेकिन अगामी बैठक में इसकी स्वीकृति ले लेना अनिवार्य होगा।
1. कार्यकारीणी समिति द्वारा सौपे गये वित्तिय कार्यो एवं दायित्वों को पूरा करना।
2. समिति के आय-व्यय का हिसाब रखना, आय व्यय का लेखा तैयार करने में एवं सुरक्षित रखने मे सचिव को सहयोग करना।
3. आम सभा मे आय-व्यय लेखा प्रस्तुत करने में सचिव को सहयोग करना उसे बैठक में रखना तथा पुछे गये प्रश्नो का उत्तर देना।
4. सदस्यता शुल्क इत्यादि प्राप्त कर रसीद देना।
5. समिति का कोष किसी निर्धारित बैंक या डाकघर में समिति के नाम पर जमा करना तथा आवश्यकता पड़ने पर सचिव या अध्यक्ष एवं अपने सयुंक्त हस्ताक्षर से संस्था के खाते से किसी रकम की निकासी करना।
6. कार्यकारिणी की बैठक में वित्तीय विषयो पर उत्तर देना।
7. आय के नये स्त्रोंतों की खोज करना एवं तत्त्संबधी परामर्श कार्यकारिणी को देना।
8. संस्था के लेखा का अकेंक्षण कराना एवं संबंधित प्रहतवेदन आम सभा मे रखना।
5. आम सभा का कार्य एवं अधिकार
क. कार्य कारिणी के समिति के पदाधिकारियों एवं सदस्यों का निर्वाचन करना।
ख. संस्था की योजना, बजट, अंकेक्षित लेखा एवंप्रगति प्रतिवेदन को पारित करना।
ग. संस्था की लेखा के अंकेक्षण हेतु आम सभा के 3/5 सदस्यो की सहमति से अंकेक्षक की नियुक्ति करना।
घ. संस्था के स्मृति पत्र एव नियंमावली मे संशेधन करना।
ड़. संस्था के विघटन पर न्याय लेना।
च. अध्यक्ष की राय से अन्य विषयांे पर विचार करना।
छ. संस्था के वार्षिक प्रगति प्रतिवेदन को पारित करना।
6. आम सभा की बैठकें:-
आम सभा के 1/3 सदस्यों के लिखित मांग, जिसमे अधोयाचना करने वाले सदस्यो का हस्ताक्षर एवं बैठक से विचारणीय बिन्दु का स्पष्ट उल्लेख रहेगा, पर अधियाचना प्राप्ति के 30 दिनो के अन्दर संस्था के सचिव को आम सभा की बैठक बुलानी होगी। यदि तीस दिनों के अन्दर संस्था द्वारा बैठक नही बुलाई जायेगी तब अधीयाचना करने वाले सदस्यो को अधिकार होगा कि आम सभा के सभी सदस्यो को सुचना भेजकर आम सभा की अधियाचित बैठक में अधियाचन में अकिंत विषय पर निर्णय ले सकते है।
7. कार्यकारिणी समिति की बैठक:-
क. कार्यकारिणी समिति की बैठक प्रत्येक माह होगी, जिसकी सुचना कम से कम सात दिन पूर्व दी जायेगी। बैठक मे भाग लेना सभी सदस्य के लिए अनिवार्य है।
ख. आवश्यकता पड़ने पर बैठक कभी भी बुलायी जा सकती है। जिसकी सुचना कम से कम 48 घंटे पूर्व दी जायेगी।
ग. सुचना डाक द्वारा तथा सुचना बही पर हस्ताक्षर प्राप्त कर या विशेष दूत या अन्य किसी संचार माध्यम द्वारा दिया जा सकता है।
8. कोष की व्यवस्था बैक खाते का संचालन:–
संस्था केा प्राप्त होने वाली सभी राशियाँ संस्था के नाम किसी राष्ट्रीयकृत बैंक/डाकघर में खुले खाते मे रखी जायेगी। उक्त खातों का संचालन अध्यक्ष, सचिव एवं कोषाध्यक्ष के द्वारा सयुक्त रूप से होगा, परन्तु निकासी किन्ही दो पदाधिकारी के सयुंक्त हस्ताक्षर से होगी जिसमें कोषाध्यक्ष का हस्ताक्षर अनिवार्य होगी।
9. कानुनी कारवाई:-
संस्था द्वारा या संस्था के विरूद्ध केाई भी कानुनी कारवाई संस्था के सचिव के पदनाम से होगी।
Santali is the precursor language of eastern Indian languages among the languages of Austric family. Santali language stands second position in Jharkhand state after Hindi language and is the second official language of Jharkhand too.
Santali is the constitutionally recognised language of India which was placed in 8th schedule of Constitution of India by 100th Amendment of Constitution of India. As per numbers of speakers, Santali is ranking 13th position in India and 94th in the world.
Santali language has its own writing system which is called Ol chiki. Ol chiki is the Unicoded Script (version 9.0) for Santali. It is compatible for computer and mobile telephony. Software is developed by CDEC and other various organisations of India and abroad. It can be downloaded any time in any part of the world. Sahitya academic, New Delhi, CIIL Mysure and Bengal Santal academic are publishing the books of Santali in Ol chiki script.
Santali language has been recognised by JAC for Matric and Plus two level of education system in Jharkhand state. Education in Santali language is imparted in the following universities in U/G & P/G courses in the state of Jharkhand
(a).Ranchi University, Ranchi.
(b). D.S.P.M University, Ranchi.
(c) S.K.M. University, Dumka.
(d). Kolhan University, Chai basa.
(e). Education in Santali language is imparted Diploma courses in Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribagh. Santali language has also been recognised for Matric and Plus two level of education system in Bengal state. Education in Santali language is imparted in Bengal in Ol Chiki sript from school level to university. Santali language is taught in the following universities in U/G & P/G courses in the state of Bengal.
Vidyasagar University, Medinapur
S.K.B. University, Pruliya.
Bankura University, Bankura.
Burdwan University, Burdwan.
Viswa Bharati University, Santiniketan, Bolpur.
Diploma and Certificate courses are being conducted in Rabindra Bharati University, Kolkata.
Santali language is taught in following universities in U/G & P/G courses in the state of Odisha.
North Odisa University, Baripada.
Sambalpur University, Sambalpur.
Major Population of Santals in the Districts of Jharkhand
According to census of 2011, population of Santals in some districts of Jhakhand state is given in the following charts.